THE QUESTION OF VICTORIANISM AND PROGRESS IN GASKELL’S CRANFORD: A ROMANTICISED OFFER / GASKELL’IN CRANFORD ESERİNDE VİKTORYA TOPLUMU VE İLERİCİLİK FELSEFESİNİN SORGULANMASI: ROMANTİK BİR ÖNERİ

Ömer ÖĞÜNÇ

Öz


Elizabeth Gaskell’s Cranford (1853) can be regarded as a notable work in terms of the attitude towards the dominant idea of progressivism in the Victorian era. Many works by Gaskell’s contemporaries tended to deal with social problems of the period, among which her own industrial novels can be included. However, Cranford has an exceptional stance in that the novel takes place in English countryside remote from all the turmoil created by industrialisation. Setting her characters in the middle of an idyllic landscape where the railways and impact of the capitalist economy are quite far away from the inhabitants of the little town Cranford, Gaskell presents a lifestyle associated with the remote past, which is still alive in the memories of English people. In view of the representation of a small town in the mid-Victorian period and the praise on a simple lifestyle, Gaskell’s attitude in Cranford can be defined as a challenge against progressivism. Hence, this article aims to analyse Gaskell’s Cranford in the light of the industrial transformation of the Victorian era and argues that Victorianism and the philosophy of progressivism were severely challenged longing for pre-industrial conditions.


Anahtar Kelimeler


Elizabeth Gaskell; Cranford; Victorianism; progress; challenge.

Tam Metin:

PDF (English)

Referanslar


CROSKERY, Margaret Case (2016). “Mothers Without Children, Unity Without Plot: Cranford’s Radical Charm”. Nineteenth-Century Literature (52): 198-220. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2933907 [09.06.2016].

DAGUE, Elizabeth (1980). “Images of Work, Glimpses of Professionalism in Selected Nineteenth- and Twentieth-Century Novels”. Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies (5): 50-55. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3346305 [09.06.2016].

GASKELL, Elizabeth (2011). Cranford. 1853. Reprint. London: Collins.

GILLOOLY, Eileen (1992). “Humor as Daughterly Defense in Cranford”. ELH (59): 883-910. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2873299 [18.01.2017].

GILMOUR, Robin (1993). The Victorian Period: The Intellectual and Cultural Context of English Literature. Harlow: Longman.

HOPKINS, A. B. (1931). “Liberalism in the Social Teachings of Mrs. Gaskell”. Social Service Review (5): 57-73. http://www.jstor.org/stable/30009643 [09.06.2016].

JAFFE, Audrey (2007). “Cranford and Ruth”. The Cambridge Companion to Elizabeth Gaskell. ed. Jill L. Matus. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 30-49.

KIESEL, Alyson J. (2004). “Meaning and Misinterpretation in ‘Cranford’”. ELH (71): 1001-1017. http://www.jstor.org/stable/30029954 [07.09.2016].

MILL, John Stuart (2001). Utilitarianism. 1863. Reprint. Ontario: Batoche Books.

MILLER, Andrew H. (1994). “Subjectivity Ltd: The Discourse of Liability in the Joint Stock Companies Act of 1856 and Gaskell’s Cranford”. ELH (61): 139-157. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2873436 [09.06.2016].

MULVIHILL, James (1995). “Economies of Living in Mrs. Gaskell’s Cranford”. Nineteenth-Century Literature (50): 337-356. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2933673 [12.07.2016].

SCHOR, Hillary M. (1992). Scheherazade in the Market Place: Elizabeth Gaskell and the Victorian Novel. New York: Oxford University Press.

SEAMAN, Lewis. C. B. (1995). Victorian England: Aspects of English and Imperial History 1837-1901. Oxon: Routledge.

THELEN, David P. (1969). “Social Tensions and the Origins of Progressivism”. The Journal of American History (56): 323-341.

WOLFE, Patricia A. (1968). “Structure and Movement in Cranford”. Nineteenth-Century Fiction (23): 161-176. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2932367 [09.06.2016].


Refback'ler

  • Şu halde refbacks yoktur.